Improving Security on Election Results Data Transmission via Cloud Using Hybrid Homomorphic Encryption

  • Arnold Mashud Abukari Department of Computer Science, Tamale Technical University, Ghana
  • Iddrisu Zulfawu Department of Operations, Africa Research Center for Information Security (ARCIS), Ghana
  • Edem Kwedzo Bankas Department of Business Computing, C. K. Tedam University of Technology and Applied Sciences, Ghana
  • Issah Gibrilla Department of Computer Science, Tamale Technical University, Ghana
Keywords: election, encryption, results management system (RMS), system architecture, cloud computing


Elections in recent years have become topical issues and characterized by violence and conflicts leading to loss of lives and properties. The integrity and confidentiality of the declared collated results have been questioned by individuals and organisations with keen interest in the outcomes of every election. Different countries have adopted different Election Results Management Systems (RMS) to help present a credible, fair and transparent election results. These systems adopted are not without criticisms and suspicions. This research paper has presented various factors that need to be considered when selecting a Results Management System (RMS) for elections. A cloud-based using a Hybrid homomorphic encryption approach is proposed in managing the election results data security and transmission. The proposed scheme has demonstrated effectiveness in handling data integrity, data confidentiality, data privacy and access control. The proposed scheme presented has enhanced the security of election results data against Chosen Ciphetext Attacks (CCA) and Denial of Service (DoS) as well as other cyber related attacks. The time required for the entire election data encryption, transmission, decryption, upload time and download time has been greatly enhanced with the proposed system. The proposed system workflow algorithm, key generation algorithm, encryption algorithm and decryption have been presented in this research paper. The outcome of the research work indicates that only 0.00078 seconds is required to generate keys for about 100 users. About 0.705 seconds and 0.863 seconds is required for the encryption and decryption of a 500MB election results data. It was observed that the overall election results data transmission time is about 51.779 seconds which is less than one minute (60 seconds) for about 500MB data size of the election results data. This paper makes a case for the adoption and implementation of the proposed system since it performs better in terms of securing the election results data and transmission time in the cloud environment.


Hansen, J., Sato, M., & Kharecha, P. (2023). Good news for young people about climate change and a thank you. Climate Science, Awareness and Solutions, CSAS Columbia.

Ali, M., Dhamotharan, R., Khan, E., Khan, S. U., Vasilakos, A. V., Li, K., & Zomaya, A. Y. (2017). SeDaSC: Secure data sharing in clouds. IEEE Systems Journal, 11(2), 395-404.

Al-Issa, Y., Ottom, M. A., & Tamrawi, A. (2019). eHealth cloud security challenges: A survey. Journal of Healthcare Engineering, 2019, Article ID 7516035.

Babitha, M., & Babu, K. R. (2016). Secure cloud storage using AES encryption. In 2016 International Conference on Automatic Control and Dynamic Optimization Techniques (ICACDOT), (pp. 859-864). IEEE.

Babrahem, A. S., & Monowar, M. M. (2021). Preserving confidentiality and privacy of the patient’s EHR using the OrBAC and AES in cloud environment. International Journal of Computers and Applications, 43(1), 50-61.

Bentajer, A., Hedabou, M., Abouelmehdi, K., Igarramen, Z., & El Fezazi, S. (2019). An IBE-based design for assured deletion in cloud storage. Cryptologia, 43(3), 254-265.

Boumezbeur, I., & Zarour, K. (2022a). Privacy-preserving and access control for sharing electronic health record using blockchain technology. Acta Informatica Pragensia, 11(1), 105-122.

Boumezbeur, I., & Zarour, K. (2022b). EMR sharing with privacy preservation using blockchain technology. In Proceedings of the 1st national Conference on Information and Communication (CICT) (pp. 41-43). Tamanrasset.

Jana, B., Poray, J., Mandal. T., & Kule, M. (2017). A multilevel encryption technique in cloud security. In 2017 7th International Conference on Communication Systems and Network Technologies (CSNT) (pp. 220-224). IEEE.

Khan, A. N., Kiah, M. L. M., Madani, S. A., Ali, M., Khan, A. ur R., & Shamshirband, S. (2013). Incremental proxy reencryption scheme for mobile cloud computing environment. The Journal of Supercomputing, 68(2), 624-651.

Mahalle, V. S., & Shahade, A. K. (2014). Enhancing the data security in cloud by implementing hybrid (Rsa & Aes) encryption algorithm. In 2014 International Conference on Power, Automation and Communication (INPAC) (pp. 146-149). IEEE.

Michalas, A., Bakas, A., Dang, H. V., & Zalitko, A. (2019). MicroSCOPE: Enabling access control in searchable encryption with the use of attribute-based encryption and SGX. In Nordic Conference on Secure IT Systems (pp. 254-270). Springer.

Rajakumar, M., Ramya, J., Sonia, R., & Uma Maheswari, B. (2021). A novel scheme for encryption and decryption of 3D point and mesh cloud data in cloud computing. Journal of Control Engineering and Applied Informatics, 23(1), 93-102

Seo, S.-H., Nabeel, M., Ding, X., & Bertino, E. (2014). An efficient certificateless encryption for secure data sharing in public clouds. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 26(9), 2107-2119.

Singh, N., & Singh, A. K. (2017). Data privacy protection mechanisms in cloud. Data Science and Engineering, 3(1), 24-39.

Yang, Y., Zheng, X., Guo, W., Liu, X., & Chang, V. (2019). Privacy-preserving smart IoT-based healthcare big data storage and self-adaptive access control system. Information Sciences, 479, 567-592.

Zhang, L., Wu, Q., Mu, Y., & Zhang, J. (2016). Privacy-preserving and secure sharing of PHR in the cloud. Journal of Medical Systems, 40(12).

Cavoukian, A. (2003). Guidelines on Facsimile Transmission Security [Review of the book Guidelines on Facsimile Transmission Security]. In Information and Privacy Commissioner of Ontario.

Perschau, S. (1995). Security and Facsimile [Review of the book Security and Facsimile]. In Delta Information Systems, Inc. HORSHAM PA.

Rydell, P. (2023, April 22). How Long Does It Take To Fax Something? [Review of the book How Long Does It Take To Fax Something?].

Cobos-Flores, F., McDermott, R., Catozzi, G., Rico-Bernabe, R., & Patel, A. (2015). Electoral Results Management Systems: Catalogue of Options [Review of Electoral Results Management Systems: Catalogue of Options]. In Jeff Hoover (ed.), UNDP.

Abukari, A. M., Bankas, E. K., & Iddrisu, M. M. (2021). A hybrid of two homomorphic encryption schemes for cloud enterprise resource planning (ERP) data. International Journal of Computer Applications, 183(38), 1-7.

How to Cite
Abukari, A. M., Zulfawu, I., Bankas, E. K., & Gibrilla, I. (2024). Improving Security on Election Results Data Transmission via Cloud Using Hybrid Homomorphic Encryption. Earthline Journal of Mathematical Sciences, 14(4), 631-653.

Most read articles by the same author(s)