Investigating the bioactive compounds and characterization of Guiera senegalensis aqueous extract

  • Kabiru Bashir Ahmad Department of Chemistry, Federal University Lokoja, Kogi, Nigeria
  • Ma’aruf Abdulmumin Muhammad Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Mewar University, Gangrar, Rajasthan, India
  • Al-Amin Bashir Department of Chemistry, Federal University Dutsin-Ma, Katsina State, Nigeria
  • Musa Yahaya Abubakar Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Mewar University, Gangrar, Rajasthan, India
  • Ansar Bilyaminu Adam Department of Chemical Sciences, Federal University Wukari, Wukari, Nigeria
  • Abdulmalik Isah Victoria Department of Chemistry, Federal University Lokoja, Kogi, Nigeria
Keywords: Guiera senegalensis, bioactive compounds, traditional medicine, aqueous extract, FTIR and GC-MS analysis


The growing demand for plant-based medications raises concerns about overharvesting and biodiversity loss. Integrating traditional medicine with modern techniques is becoming popular, especially in areas with limited access to conventional medicine. The West African native plant Guiera senegalensis, known for its numerous medicinal uses, is widely employed in traditional medicine. The demand for affordable treatments using bioactive chemicals is increasing. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the bioactive compounds present in the aqueous extract of Guiera senegalensis leaves.

Aqueous extracts from Guiera senegalensis leaves were prepared and analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of carboxylic acids and their derivatives, along with other compounds such as n-propyl 11-octadecenoate, aspidospermidin-17-ol, and 1-acetyl-19,21-epoxy-15,16-dimethoxy. These findings support the therapeutic potential of Guiera senegalensis.

FTIR analysis showed significant peaks, including a strong intensity at 3205 cm⁻¹ attributed to carboxylic acids, 2926 cm⁻¹ for C-H stretching (alkanes), and 1200 cm⁻¹ corresponding to esters, carboxylic acids, or ethers. Additional peaks were observed at 1442 cm⁻¹ (aromatic C=C double bond), 1602 cm⁻¹ (N-H bend of primary amine), 1457 cm⁻¹ (aromatic ring stretch), 1375 cm⁻¹ (alkane bend vibration), and 1162 cm⁻¹ (C-N stretch of amines).

The study identifies essential bioactive compounds such as D-limonene, butanoic acid, and phenolic acids, which have significant pharmacological and biological applications. These compounds are utilized in various industries, including fragrance, cosmetics, and household cleaners. The presence of fatty acids in the extract, which aid in improving heart conditions by lowering cholesterol and reducing inflammation, further underscores the therapeutic potential of Guiera senegalensis. This research provides a scientific basis for the traditional use of Guiera senegalensis and highlights its potential for developing cost-effective treatments.


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How to Cite
Ahmad, K. B., Muhammad, M. A., Bashir, A.-A., Abubakar, M. Y., Adam, A. B., & Victoria, A. I. (2024). Investigating the bioactive compounds and characterization of Guiera senegalensis aqueous extract . Earthline Journal of Chemical Sciences, 11(3), 405-416.

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