Environmental and Health Impacts of Women Fish Processors Working on Traditional and Modern Fish Smoking Platforms in Braffèdon (Ivory Coast)
Smoked fish plays a significant role in food security and nutrition, represents 2/3 of the consumption of fishery products in Ivory Coast and is still obtained using outdated traditional smoking methods. These methods are not very concerned with the health of the populations and the preservation of the environment, despite the existence of improved ovens called FTT ovens (FAO-Thiaroye Processing Technique) introduced in the country. The objective of this study is to show the impact of traditional smoking on the health of fish smokers and the environment in comparison with smoking processes based on FTT ovens. It is a cross-sectional and descriptive study involving 36 female smokers who use traditional ovens, 24 female smokers who use FTT ovens, as well as 53 Braffèdon case controls. It was conducted from January 2017 to December 2018. The data collection methodology includes questionnaire surveys, interviews, and observations. For the purpose of the study, two samples were followed: these were women smokers and non-smokers of fish, all of whom volunteered at the clinical examinations conducted. The results showed that women who use traditional stoves are more affected by pathologies. Baseline spirometry did not detect a significant frequency of ventilatory disorders. Bronchial hyperreactivity was statistically more frequent in women smokers using traditional ovens. Three measurement campaigns for CO, VOC and NO were performed above the ovens, at the women's resting point and beyond the ovens. The CO levels found at the women’s resting point in the traditional sites were higher and often exceeded the limit value (50 mg/m3). This work has allowed us to identify the deleterious effects of the fish smoking activity on the health of the fish smokers and the environment.
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