A Review of the Environmental Impact of Gas Flaring on the Physiochemical Properties of Water, Soil and Air Quality in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria
The Niger Delta region of Nigeria is of great socio-economic importance due to its huge crude oil reserves. However, the process of exploration has been of great detrimental effect on the physiochemical properties of the soil, water and air quality in the region and has caused several public health issues. This review article is focused on readdressing the extent of the impact of one of the processes, gas flaring on the environment, using some physiochemical parameters of rain water, soil and air quality in some selected communities in the Niger Delta region based on series of previous researches. The results show that gas flaring has negatively impacted the physical and chemical properties soil, water and air components of the environment, most especially impacting areas very close to the flaring site. Also, recommendations were made as to how the flaring of gas can be reduced to a very minimal level as well as how these gases can be utilized making it more economical than the flaring process which is a very good case for further research.
Abdulkareem, A.S. (2005). Urban air pollution evaluation by computer simulation: a case study of petroleum refining company, Nigeria. Leonardo Journal of Science Technical University of Cluj-Napoca Romania, 6, 17-28.
Ndubuisi, O.L., & Asia, I.O. (2007). Environmental pollution in oil producing areas of the Niger delta basin, Nigeria: empirical assessment of trends and people’s perception. Environmental Research Journal, 1(1-4), 18-26.
Generon.com (2019, September 24). What is Gas Flaring? — Why is It Done & Viable Alternatives. Retrieved from https://www.generon.com/what-is-gas-flaring-why-is-it-done-alternatives/
McGreevey, C.M., & Whitaker, G. (2020). Zero Routine Flaring by 2030. Retrieved from https://www.worldbank.org/en/programs/zero-routine-flaring-by-2030
Eboh, M. (2019, December 31). Nigeria: Despite Paucity of Funds, Nigeria Flares N461bn Gas in 2019. Retrieved from https://allafrica.com/stories/201912310199.html
Schick, L., Myles, P., & Okelum, O.E. (2018, November 14). Gas flaring continues scorching Niger Delta. Retrieved from https://www.dw.com/en/gas-flaring-continues-scorching-niger-delta/a-46088235
Stockbrokers, C.S.L. (2020, February 18). Gas flaring: A never-ending dark tunnel. Retrieved from https://nairametrics.com/2020/02/18/gas-flaring-a-never-ending-dark-tunnel/
Amanze, R.E. (2013). Gas flaring in Nigeria: cost and policy. Energy and Environment, 24(6), 77-78. https://doi.org/10.1260/0958-305X.24.6.983
Ede, P.N. (1995). An analysis of the atmospheric impact of gas flaring in Rivers State. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Department of Geography, University of Port Harcourt, Choba.
Tamuno, S., & Felix, J.M. (2006). Crude Oil Resource: A Blessing or Curse to Nigeria —The Case of the Niger Delta. J. Res. Natl. Dev., 4, 53-58. https://doi.org/10.4314/jorind.v4i2.42332
PWC (2019). Assessing the impacts of gas flaring on the Nigerian economy. Retrieved from https://www.pwc.com/ng/en/assets/pdf/gas-flaring-impact1.pdf
Ismail, O.S., & Umukoro, G.E., (2012). Global impact of gas flaring. Energy and Power Engineering, 4(4), 290-302. https://doi.org/10.4236/epe.2012.44039
Ayoola, T.J. (2011). Gas flaring and its implication for environmental accounting in Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development, 4(5), 244. https://doi.org/10.5539/jsd.v4n5p244
Anejionu, O.C., Ahiarammunnah, P.A.N., & Nri-ezedi, C.J. (2015). Hydrocarbon pollution in the Niger Delta: Geographies of impacts and appraisal of lapses in extant legal framework. Resources Policy, 45, 65-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resourpol.2015.03.012
Frolovskiy, Dmitriy (2019, December). Gas flaring remains issue for Russia. Retrieved from https://asiatimes.com/2019/12/russias-gas-flare-up-but-less-than-before/
Uyigue, E., & Agho, M. (2007). Coping with climate change and environmental degradation in the Niger Delta of southern Nigeria. Community Research and Development Centre Nigeria (CREDC).
Kadafa, A.A. (2012). Oil exploration and spillage in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Civil and Environmental Research, 2(3), 38-51.
Osuji, L.C., & Adesiyan, S.O. (2005). Extractable hydrocarbons, nickel and vanadium contents of Ogbodo-Isiokpo oil spill polluted soils in Niger Delta, Nigeria. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 110(1-3), 129-139. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-005-6283-0
Ajugwo, Anselm (2013). Negative effects of gas flaring: the Nigerian experience. Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health, 1(1), 6-8.
Ogawa-Onishi, Y., & Berry, P.M. (2013). Ecological impacts of climate change in Japan: The importance of integrating local and international publications. Biol. Conserv. 157, 361-371. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2012.06.024
Ubani, E.C., & Onyejekwe, I.M. (2013). Environmental impact analyses of gas flaring in the Niger delta region of Nigeria. American Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 4(2), 246-252. https://doi.org/10.5251/ajsir.2013.4.2.246.252
Orimoogunje, O.I., Ayanlade, A., Akinkuolie, T.A., & Odiong, A.U. (2010). Perception on the effect of gas flaring on the environment. Res. J. Environ. Earth Sci. 2(4), 188-193.
Ovuakporaye, S.I., Aloamaka, C.P., Ojieh, A.E., Ejebe, D.E., & Mordi, J.C. (2012). Effects of gas flaring on lung function among residents Gas flaring community in Delta State, Nigeria. Res. J. Env. Earth Sci., 4(5), 525-528.
Nwaogu, L.A., & Onyeze, G.O.C. (2020). Environmental impact of gas flaring on Ebocha-Egbema, Niger-Delta, Nigeria. International Journal of Energy and Environmental Research, 8(1), 1-11.
Njoku-Tony, R.F., Ihejirika, C.E., Ebe, T.E., Nwachukwu, N., & Elimnitan, O.O. (2017). Effects of gas flare from Utorogu gas plant on biochemical variables of cassava leaves (Manihot esculentum) Niger Delta. British Journal of Environmental Science, 5(5), 27-38.
Nagaraju, M., Narasimha, G., & Rangaswamy, V. (2007). Impact of effluents of sugar cane industry on soil physicochemical and biological properties. Journal of Industrial Pollution Control, 23(1), 73-76.
Nwaugo, V.O., Onyeagba, R.A., & Nwachukwu, N.C. (2006). Effect of gas flaring on soil microbial spectrum in parts of Niger Delta Area of Sourthen Nigeria. Annual Journal of Biotechnology, 5(19), 1824-1826.
Nwankwo, C.N., & Ogagarue, D.O. (2011). Effects of gas flaring on surface and ground waters in Delta State, Nigeria. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 3(5), 131-136.
Ahuchaogu, I. Israel, Ime, Etim, & Ofose, V. Etim (2019). Effects of gas flaring on surface water in Mkpanak community of Akwa-Ibom state, Nigeria. International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), 8(9). https://doi.org/10.17577/IJERTV8IS090134
ASTM, (1999). Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater (21st ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Society for Testing and Materials.
APHA, (1998). Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater (20th ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Public Health Association.
NSDWQ (2007). Standards Organization of Nigeria, Lagos, Nigeria: Nigerian Standards for Drinking Water Quality.
Mann, A.G., Tam, C.C., Higgins C.D., & Lodrigues, L.C. (2007). The association between drinking water turbidity and gastrointestinal illness: a systematic review. BMC Public Health, 7(256), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-7-256
Fakayode, S. O. (2005). Impact assessment of industrial effluent on water quality of the receiving Alaro River in Ibadan, Nigeria. Ajeam-Ragee, 10, 1-13.
Boukari, M. (1998). Updating of hydrogeological knowledge about coastal sedimentary basin of Benin. Cotonou, 134.
Etu-Efeotor, J.O. (1998). Hydro chemical analysis of surface and ground waters of Gwagwalada area of Central Nigeria. Global J. Pure Appl. Sci., 4(2), 153-162.
Shivayogimath, C.B., Kalburgi, P.B., Deshannavar, U.B., & Virupakshaiah, D.B.M. (2012). Water quality evaluation of river Ghataprabha, India. Int. Res. J. Environ. Sci., 1(1), 12-18.
WHO, (2011). International drinking water standard (4th ed.). Geneva; World Health Organisation.
WHO, (2008). International drinking water standard (3rd ed.). Geneva: World Health Organization.
Frolovskiy, Dmitriy (2019). Gas flaring remains an issue in Russia. https://asiatimes.com/2019/12/russias-gas-flare-up-but-less-than-before/
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.