Earthline Journal of Mathematical Sciences https://earthlinepublishers.com/index.php/ejms <p style="text-align: justify;">The Earthline Journal of Mathematical Sciences (e-ISSN: 2581-8147) is a peer-reviewed international journal devoted to publishing original research papers containing substantial contributions in any direction of Pure and Applied Mathematics, Theoretical and Applied Statistics, Theoretical Computer Science, Mathematical Physics, Mathematical Chemistry, Mathematical Modelling, Mathematical Biology. Applications of Mathematics in Finance and Economics are also welcome.</p> en-US <p><img src="https://earthlinepublishers.com/public/site/images/ejcs/88x311.png"><br>This work is licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> ejms@earthlinepublishers.com (Fabiola Malowney) editor@earthlinepublishers.com (K. Jhansi Rani) OJS 3.1.2.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 On Generating Tridiagonal Matrices of Generalized (s,t)-Pell, (s,t)-Pell Lucas and (s,t)-Modified Pell Sequences https://earthlinepublishers.com/index.php/ejms/article/view/368 <p>In this study, we define some tridigional matrices depending on two real parameters. By using the determinant of these matrices, the elements of (s,t)-Pell, (s,t)-Pell Lucas and (s,t)-modified Pell sequences with even or odd indices are generated. Then we construct the inverse matrices of these tridigional matrices. We also investigate eigenvalues of these matrices.</p> S. Uygun Copyright (c) https://earthlinepublishers.com/index.php/ejms/article/view/368 Thu, 12 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Coefficient Bounds for Al-Oboudi Type Bi-univalent Functions based on a Modified Sigmoid Activation Function and Horadam Polynomials https://earthlinepublishers.com/index.php/ejms/article/view/369 <p>Using the Al-Oboudi type operator, we present and investigate two special families of bi-univalent functions in $\mathfrak{D}$, an open unit disc, based on $\phi(s)=\frac{2}{1+e^{-s} },\,s\geq0$, a modified sigmoid activation function (MSAF) and Horadam polynomials. We estimate the initial coefficients bounds for functions of the type $g_{\phi}(z)=z+\sum\limits_{j=2}^{\infty}\phi(s)d_jz^j$ in these families. Continuing the study on the initial cosfficients of these families, we obtain the functional of Fekete-Szeg\"o for each of the two families. Furthermore, we present few interesting observations of the results investigated.</p> S. R. Swamy Copyright (c) https://earthlinepublishers.com/index.php/ejms/article/view/369 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The New Results in n-injective Modules and n-projective Modules https://earthlinepublishers.com/index.php/ejms/article/view/370 <p>In this paper, we introduce and clarify a new presentation between the <em>n</em>-exact sequence and the <em>n</em>-injective module and <em>n</em>-projective module. Also, we obtain some new results about them.</p> Samira Hashemi, Feysal Hassani, Rasul Rasuli Copyright (c) https://earthlinepublishers.com/index.php/ejms/article/view/370 Thu, 19 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Trifunction Bihemivariational Inequalities https://earthlinepublishers.com/index.php/ejms/article/view/377 <p>In this paper, we consider a new class of hemivariational inequalities, which is called the trifunction bihemivariational inequality. We suggest and analyze some iterative methods for solving the trifunction bihemivariational inequality using the auxiliary principle technique. The convergence analysis of these iterative methods is also considered under some mild conditions. Several special cases are also considered.&nbsp; Results proved in this paper can be viewed as a refinement and improvement of the known results.</p> Muhammad Aslam Noor, Khalida Inayat Noor Copyright (c) https://earthlinepublishers.com/index.php/ejms/article/view/377 Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Detecting Electronic Banking Fraud on Highly Imbalanced Data using Hidden Markov Models https://earthlinepublishers.com/index.php/ejms/article/view/381 <p>Recent researches have revealed the capability of Machine Learning (ML) techniques to effectively detect fraud in electronic banking transactions since they have the potential to detect new and unknown intrusions. A major challenge in the application of ML to fraud detection is the presence of highly imbalanced data sets. In many available datasets, majority of transactions are genuine with an extremely small percentage of fraudulent ones. Designing an accurate and efficient fraud detection system that is low on false positives but detects fraudulent activity effectively is a significant challenge for researchers. In this paper, a framework based on Hidden Markov Models (HMM), modified Density Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN) and Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique Techniques (SMOTE) is proposed to effectively detect fraud in a highly imbalanced electronic banking dataset. The various transaction types, transaction amounts and the frequency of transactions are taken into consideration by the proposed model to enable effective detection. With different number of hidden states for the proposed HMMs, simulations are performed for four (4) different approaches and their performances compared using precision, recall rate and F1-Score as the evaluation metrics. The study revealed that, our proposed approach is able to detect fraudulent transactions more effectively with reasonably low number of false positives.</p> Abukari Abdul Aziz Danaa, Mohammed Ibrahim Daabo, Alhassan Abdul-Barik Copyright (c) https://earthlinepublishers.com/index.php/ejms/article/view/381 Mon, 06 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Generalized Oresme Numbers https://earthlinepublishers.com/index.php/ejms/article/view/383 <p>In this paper, we introduce the generalized Oresme sequence and we deal with, in detail, three special cases which we call them modified Oresme, Oresme-Lucas and Oresme sequences. We present Binet's formulas, generating functions, Simson formulas, and the summation formulas for these sequences. Moreover, we give some identities and matrices related with these sequences.</p> Yüksel Soykan Copyright (c) https://earthlinepublishers.com/index.php/ejms/article/view/383 Mon, 13 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 f-Biharmonic Curves in the Three-dimensional Para-Sasakian Space Forms https://earthlinepublishers.com/index.php/ejms/article/view/384 <p>In this paper, we give some characterizations for proper <em>f</em>-biharmonic curves in the para-Bianchi-Cartan-Vranceanu space forms with 3-dimensional para-Sasakian structures.</p> Murat Altunbaş Copyright (c) https://earthlinepublishers.com/index.php/ejms/article/view/384 Mon, 13 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Topp-Leone Weibull Distribution: Its Properties and Application https://earthlinepublishers.com/index.php/ejms/article/view/386 <p>This paper presents a new generalization of the Topp-Leone distribution called the Topp-Leone Weibull Distribution (TLWD). Some of the mathematical properties of the proposed distribution are derived, and the maximum likelihood estimation method is adopted in estimating the parameters of the proposed distribution. An application of the proposed distribution alongside with some well-known distributions belonging to the Topp-Leone generated family of distributions, to a real lifetime data set reveals that the proposed distribution exhibits more flexibility in modeling lifetime data based on some comparison criteria such as maximized log-likelihood, Akaike Information Criterion [AIC=2k-2 log⁡(L) ],&nbsp;Kolmogorov-Smirnov test statistic (K-S)&nbsp;and Anderson Darling test statistic (A<sup>*</sup>) and Crammer-Von Mises test statistic (W<sup>*</sup>).</p> Diamond O. Tuoyo, Festus C. Opone, N. Ekhosuehi Copyright (c) https://earthlinepublishers.com/index.php/ejms/article/view/386 Fri, 17 Sep 2021 02:51:38 +0000